Concepts Islamic Education Pesantren Darussalam Gontor
Modern Islamic Education Concepts Pondok Pesantren Darussalam Gontor
Broadly the Concepts Islamic Education Pesantren Darussalam Gontor can be divided into three fields. It is the integration of madrasah education system and pesantren system, foreign language as the key science and school day with boarding system. The three concepts of education can be described as follows:
Integration of Madrasah System and Pesantren System
The principle of integration of "everything in this hut was deliberately created for education" said K.H. Imam Zarkasyi repeatedly affirmed this principle on numerous occasions. It means that "all activities in Pondok Modern Darusssalam Gontor with madrasah system and islamic spirit are interconnected and supportive of each other" before the author discusses more about the integration of education in Pondok Modern Darussalam Gontor, the author wants to briefly explain the colonial education system and traditional Indonesian education, pesantren. That is the basis for the renewal of the existing system.
1) Madrasah System
At the beginning of the last decade of the 19th century when liberal education began. At that time, colonial education was also intended for a group of poor Indonesians and others for the rich society, so since 1870 the types of public education began to spread.
This colonial education is very different from traditional Indonesian Islamic education, not only in terms of methods, but more specifically in terms of content and purpose. This colonial government-run education was primarily centered on knowledge and skills to work, namely public education. Meanwhile, islamic educational institutions are more focused on knowledge and skills useful for religious life. In addition, colonial education has had curriculums such as HIS (Hollandscb-inlandcsbe school) which has a level of seven years, a three-year village school and then a Scbakelschool that has a five-year curriculum. So colonial education has used classical methods, highly effective and efficient educational tiering.
The idea of modernization of Islam that found its momentum since the beginning of the 20th century, on the field of education is diverted by the establishment of modern educational institutions. The main developers in this case are Islamic "modernist" organizations such as Jami'at Khair, Al-Irsyad, Muhamadiyah and others (as described in the previous chapter).
2) Madrasah System
The word pesantren comes from the word santri, with the prefix 'pe and the suffix' an, meaning the residence of santri. according to Mastuhu;
"Pondok pesantren is a type of Indonesian Islamic education that is traditional to delve into the science of Islam, and practice it as a guide to daily life, or called Taffaquh Fiddin, by emphasizing the importance of morals in people's lives"
Pesantren as an Islamic religious education institution with a boarding system. Or pondok, where the Kyai is the central figure, the mosque is the center for spiritual activities, and the teaching of Islam is under the guidance of the Kyai which is followed by the Santri as the main activity.
Therefore, Kyai, Santri, Masjid, Pondok or Asrama, and Pendidikan Agama Islam is the most important component in Pondok Pesantren, if it does not have one of the component above, then it cannot be said as a Pondok Pesantren.
In Pondok Pesantren there is a valuable value. The natural process of the establishment of pesantren as mentioned by K.H. Imam Zarkasyi (Trimurti) is. It has given birth to a unique system of values. The status of the cottage is a shared property that must be kept together. Each senior Santri or newcomers Santri arrives, meaning one member is responsible for the environment of the cottage. This is different from the status of the Reguler School. Which a group of people create a building first, then just put an ad to find the students. If the room is dirty, someone will call the janitor to clean it and there is a school security guard. But in Pondok Pesantren all Students are responsible for cleanliness and safety together. Thus, the islamic Pondok Pesantren is different from the Reguler School. That is meaning of Pondok Pesantren when all people from all generations learning together.
Pesantren is also not the same as Padepokan. The people who study or teach in padepokan are only certain Castes, namely Brahma and Knight. In Pesantren everyone is not distinguished. All people from all generations can learn easily.
One of the mottos held by Pondok Modern Darussalam Gontor "Stand on Top and help all societys". This means that the education and teaching that exists in pesantren is not devoted to the children of government employees, ministers and the rich only. However, the education and teaching that exists in Pondok Pesantren for all societys; poor, medium and rich. And pesantren belong to the people, not the belongings of one group.
In this case explained by one of the trimurti namely K.H. Ahmad Sahal:
"If all students of Pondok Modern Gontor consisted of Muhamadiyah children, the teachers were all Muhamadiyah, then Pondok Modern should not be Muhamadiyah at all. If the students are all Nahdlatul Ulama, the teachers are Nahdlatul Ulama, then Pondok Modern Gontor should not be Nahdlatul Ulama"
This leads to Pondok Pesantren Darussalam Gontor for all factions.
From the above description, that the development and progress of Pondok Pesantren is supported by some of the above characteristics, and that is the advantage of education and teaching that exists in indonesian institutions.
Education in Pondok Modern Pesantren Gontor started from ibtidaiyyah level then madrasah I'dadiyyah, Then on 5 Syawal 1355 H Which coincided with 19 December 1936 Hijri, founded KMI (Kulliyatul Muallimin Al Islamiyah) which coincided with the 10th anniversary of Pondok Pesantren Gontor, an institution that handles secondary education in Pondok Modern Darussalam Gontor, KMI is also an Educational institution of Islamic teachers who prioritize the formation of personality and attitude, and the planting of Islamic science.
This idea came about after the return of K.H. Imam Zarkasyi from a study trip from Java and West Sumatra.
"it was the greatest trimurti work of the early 20th century, a genuine work, an original work and truly the nature of the trimurti. Trimurti does not exemplify the western model of education, but trimurti with his intelligence, his depth of thought, his extraordinary reasoning. Or often referred to as 3 N: Niat yang tulus, Ikhlas, Nalar yang canggih dan kedepan futuristik dan Nurani yang begitu dalam” that is how Trimurti build KMI. This is all against the background of the founder's education. The three were never the same, until the end of their last lives, they were never the same, but all three always worked together. All three always come up with a new idea called KMI, for the greatness of Pondok Modern Darussalam Gontor".
KMI was founded to prepare competent prospective teachers who devote themselves to science and society lii'lai Kalimatillah on this earth, it is incompetent, that the teacher has a great priority in improving the quality of the people, he instills good habits, moral values, religion, societal in the souls of his students. In this case the Prophet Muhammad said, when he saw two factions, the group praying to Allah and the one who taught about Science.
Trimurti argues that the curriculum is not just an arrangement of subjects in the classroom, but an entire educational program. This means that the purpose of the lesson in KMI is not a stand-alone goal, but rather is integrally united with the overall educational purpose of pesantren. As a pesantren, the purpose of education in gontor is no different from the purpose of pesantren in general namely printing scholars. "Our wish is all that you all become scholars, alim, righteous, useful", said K.H. Imam Zarkasyi and his two kakanya always emphasized to his disciples. But what needs to be said here is that the scholars who are meant to be trimurti are, "Be intellectual scholars not intellectuals who know religion"
Basically, the idea of K.H. Imam Zarkasyi and his two brothers on the curriculum is the same as the idea of modern education figures that the curriculum is a series of activities and experiences that the school provides to students, under the guidance of teachers (schools) both in the classroom and outside the classroom. “Curriculum is Interpreted to mean all of the organized course, activities and experience which pupils have under direction of the school whether in the classroom or not”.
And the curriculum in Pondok Modern Darussalam is different from that of traditional huts, madrassah and educational institutions in Indonesia. 100% religious knowledge and 100% general knowledge. This means that general science is actually part of religious science, and just as important. The background of that thought departs from the fact that the most important reason for the decline of Muslims is the lack of general science in them. To reflect the curriculum, all students must stay in Pondok Pesantren for 24 hours, under the guidance of Teachers and Kyai. Then it can be drawn a hypothesis that there is a balance between general science and religion, and there is no dichotomy of science. In this case H. Husnan Bey fananie said in Thesis entitled “Modernism in Islamic Education in Indonesia and India a Cause Study of Pondok Modern Darussalam Gontor and Aligarth” that education and teaching in Gontor already includes Formal Education, Nonformal Education and Informal Education in Indonesia. And this is what the integrality of the two systems means; madrassa and pesantren, to achieve and form Insan Kamil (Perfect Man). In this Allah SWT said :
“Recite in the name of your Lord who created, Created man from a clinging substance. Recite, and your Lord is the most Generous - Who taught by the pen - Taught man that which he knew not.” Q.S.Al-Alaq. 1-5. Source here
The need for a balance between general science and religious science in a quality and forward-looking Islamic educational institution, this is what encourages Timurti to integrate madrassa system and pesantren system. And of course the results will be different from most pendidikan pesantren in general.
In the end, from this integrality, students understand the true value and meaning of education. That the most important educational value is Akhlaqul Karimah and Personality is not just paper print called Certificate of Diploma as determined by Trimurti:
- Personal knowledge and proficiency in society will prove valuable results,
- The reality of personal science and proficiency that is useful to society is actually the results and certificate that is responsible in this world and after life,
- The real value is the original effort of the result of human kindness.
The above attitude has a very large role in instilling an independent attitude and high confidence, students are educated not to shake their expectations to the Diploma, based on such thinking so that the educational and teaching activities in the cottage do not prepare the students to act as employees working in government and private offices. As Trimurti K.H. Imam Zarkasyi emphasized at every opportunity. Because of the main purpose of the educational and teaching process as stated in some verses of the Al-Qur'an, as Allah SWT says:
“And among people and moving creatures and grazing livestock are various colors similarly. Only those fear Allah, from among His servants, who have knowledge. Indeed, Allah is Exalted in Might and Forgiving.” Q.S.Al-Fatir. 35:28. Source here
“O you who have believed, when you are told, "Space yourselves" in assemblies, then make space; Allah will make space for you. And when you are told, "Arise," then arise; Allah will raise those who have believed among you and those who were given knowledge, by degrees. And Allah is Acquainted with what you do.” Q.S.Al-Mujadila 58:11. Source here
“Is one who is devoutly obedient during periods of the night, prostrating and standing [in prayer], fearing the Hereafter and hoping for the mercy of his Lord, [like one who does not]? Say, "Are those who know equal to those who do not know?" Only they will remember [who are] people of understanding.” Az-Zumar 39:9 .Source here
And as well as the advice of Prophet Muhammad SAW, who said:
"Learning knowledge is required for every Muslim" (H.R Sakhih by Ibn Maajah no. 224)
From the brief explanation above, the author concluded that the concept of integrality of the two educational systems applied by trimurti in Concepts Islamic Education Pesantren Darussalam Gontor in accordance with the teachings of Islam and the thinking of contemporary educational figures, Islamic teachings do not distinguish between the life of the world and the after life, both are two elements that are very important to achieve happiness. It should be noted that in the development of modern science there are those who argue that, existing science is not neutral, objective and value-free and full of values, if objective, of course Newton's opinion of the 16th century is the same as Einsten's opinion in the 20th century. encourage experts to adopt a Holistic Approach (Comprehensive Approach) instead of a Reductionist Approach (Selected Approach). In this case Prof. Dr. Ing. Baharudin Jusuf Habibie. once said: "A Muslim must have IMTAQ (Iman and Taqwa) and SCIENCE (Science and Technology).
Balance in life is something that must be, and integral education has an important role in producing human resources that have an equivalence between the spirit and mind, science and mental, akhlaq and skills. And in the end childrens can adjust to the development of modern civilization. That’s are Concepts Islamic Education Pesantren Darussalam Gontor. Thanks for reading my article.
Published in Jurnal Madrasah
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