A. Early Research
Water is the most important source for its survival such as animals and plants. If there is no water on this earth all living things will die. Such is the importance of water on earth to all living beings in order to survive.
Water have a lot of uses for human, such as to drink, bathe, wash, cook, water plants and many more. The need for clean water is needed by people living in both urban and rural areas. For rural communities clean water is easier to obtain than urban communities. The reason is that the rural area of the water source can be close to the mountain or river.
Clean water in urban areas is difficult to obtain because of its location in the city. Away from mountains and rivers. The people of the city rely solely on PAM (Perusahaan Air Minum). PAM is not always smooth sometimes jammed sometimes also murky. Especially if you enter the dry season, it is very difficult to get clean water. If there is water, the color is murky, smelly, and dirty.
Quality clean water has a profound effect on health both directly and indirectly. The procurement of clean water in Indonesia, especially on a large scale, is still concentrated in urban areas, and managed by the Perusahaan Air Minum (PAM). nationally the number is still insufficient and can be said to be relatively small which is 16.08 % ( Supas 1995). For areas that have not received clean water service from PAM generally they use groundwater (wells) 11.61%, river water 4.91%, rainwater 2.62%, spring water (springs) 13.92% and others. From that problem, we can still try to solve the problem by changing or clearing the murky, dirty, and smelly water that we deserve to consume and use in our daily lives.
There are various simple ways that we can get clean water by doing water filtration using simple clean water filtration techniques. Based on the above problems, the author is interested in compiling a scientific paper titled "Efforts to Clear Murky Water To Be Ready for Consumption".
B. Conclusion of the Problem
1. What are the functions and benefits of water for human life?
2. What are the clean water quality standards?
3. How is the process of clearing water with simple water purification techniques?
C. Research Objectives
1. To know the functions and benefits of water for human life;
2. To know the quality standards of clean water;
3. To provide information on how to clear water with simple water purification technique.
D. Benefits of Research
1. Know the functions and benefits of water for human life;
2. Know clean water quality standards;
3. Add insight and knowledge about the water purification process with simple water purification techniques;
4. Can try and practice yourself in the environment how the water purification process with simple water purification technique.
A. The Foundation of Theory
Clean water is one of the types of water-based resources that are of good quality and commonly utilized by humans for consumption or in doing their daily activities including sanitation. The requirements here are reviewed from chemical, physical, and biological content requirements.
1. Understanding Clean Water
a. In general: Safe and healthy water that can be consumed by humans
b. Physically: colorless, not dirty and odorless
1) NEUTRAL PH (not acid/base)
2) Does not contain toxins and heavy metals harmful to drinking water consumption according to the health department the conditions of drinking water are tasteless, odorless, colorless, and do not contain heavy metals. Although water from natural sources can be drunk by humans, there is a risk that water is contaminated with bacteria or harmful substances. Although bacteria can be killed by cooking water up to 100 ºC many harmful substances especially metals cannot be eliminated in this way.
2. Clean Water Source
On average more than 40,000 cubic kilometres of fresh water is obtained from the world's rivers. This availability (worth more than 7,000 cubic meters for each person) is cursorily seen enough to guarantee sufficient supplies for each resident, but in reality the water is often available in inappropriate places. For example, clean water in the Amazon river valley is sufficiently available, making it un economical to export water to places of need.
In the use of rain as a source of clean water, individuals/groups/governments usually build dams and tandon water that are expensive to store clean water in the dry season months and to suppress flood damage.
B. Data Description
1. Functions and Benefits of Water For Human Life.
The most important function that water has to maintain the survival of the creature is as a liquid filler in the body. That's why living things drink water. Even living things can't stand without drinking in just a few days. In addition to being used for drinking, water can also be used for other purposes. As for the various benefits of water that we can feel in daily activities, among others;
a. Meet the Needs of Fluids In the Body.
One of the bodies that we have to take care of and maintain is that the body should not run out of fluids. The body of living things, not only humans but also animals and plants need fluids. If the body has no fluids at all then the body will be dehydrated, limp, faint or even dead. That's why the body desperately needs this fluid. The water consumed by the community can be water or colored water. All types of water can act as fluids in the body. Because water also we can increase the concentration power of our minds. Conversely, if we lack fluids, then we will easily not focus on thinking about something. Often we buyar and our concentration power also decreases. Therefore do not let us lack drinking fluids that will have an impact on our decreased concentration. loss of concentration levels will be the cause of many problems that can disrupt other lives. Therefore, culture drinking enough water every day, which is at least 8 glasses per day.
b. Refreshing the Body
Actually, water will make our body fresher and fitter. When our body lacks fluids, then all we will feel is the body becoming limp and also tired. Therefore, the presence of water that will occupy the position of fluid in this body will make our body fit again. In addition, water also has cool and refreshing properties. So that we will also be able to feel our body that is fit / fresh because it has been met its water needs. Water is an excellent water because it is rich in minerals. In addition to drinking water rich in healthy minerals, water is also actually the most refreshing water, even dibading with ice water. Although water rich in minerals is very good for the body, it is better if the content in the water is not only minerals but also other important substances.
c. Cleaning the Body From Toxins.
In addition to being used to clean household furniture, water can certainly also be used to clean the body. The cleanliness of household furniture and also the environment around the house is very important and needs to get special attention. If so, the cleanliness of the limbs is also very important. This is because the body is part of us. If body hygiene is not properly maintained, then this will cause our physical health to be compromised. As a result we will be more likely to experience pain that will put our lives at risk. Therefore we must diligently bathe with clean water will clean our bodies and avoid the onss of various disease viruses. For normal size, bathing is done as much as 2x a day, namely morning and afternoon.
d. Maintaining Body Health
Water can also be beneficial as a custodian of the body's health. However, water can also maintain health conditions in the human body. Therefore water is very useful to maintain the health of the body. We can compare people who consume enough water every day and people who lack water. People who drink less will also look paler than people who drink enough water. In addition, by consuming a lot of water, our body will be more resistant to viruses so that the disease that is whacking us becomes easy to lose.
e. Helping Plants Grow
Water is very useful for trees to thrive. And it turns out that not only trees, but all kinds of plants can thrive thanks to water. Indonesians mostly work as farmers as well as in the plantation sector. Therefore, their economic life is supported by the success of farming. And it is in this case that the role of water will be urgently needed. Water becomes a basic necessity for farmers, because without water, farmers will never be able to successfully grow. Crops planted in rice fields and fields depend heavily on water. If there is no water, the plants will not last long and will eventually die. If the crop dies then the farmer will lose a great deal. Therefore, farmers are willing to buy water or water pumps that are then channeled into the river in order to irrigate the rice fields or fields. Thus we know that the role of this water is very important for farmers.
One of the daily basic necessities of living things in this world that is inseparable is Water. Not only is it important for water men to be an important part of living things both animals and bodies. Without water there is likely no life in the core world because all living things desperately need water to survive. Humans may live a few days but humans will not survive for a few days if they do not drink because it is absolute that most of the human body-forming substances are made up of 73% water. So it is not new if life in this world can continue because of the availability of enough water. In an effort to maintain its survival, man seeks to hold enough water for himself. The following water is a basic necessity for humans with all kinds of activities, among others used to:
1. Household needs, for example for drinking, cooking, bathing, washing, watering plants, and other work,
2. General purposes, for example for the cleanliness of roads and markets, transportation of wastewater, city decorations, recreation places and others.
3. Industrial purposes, for example for factories and power plant buildings.
4. Trading purposes, e.g. for hotels, and restaurants.
5. Agricultural and livestock requirements
6. Service requirements and so on.
2. Clean Water Quality Standards
Water quality generally indicates the quality or condition of water associated with a particular activity or need. While the quantity concerns the amount of water that humans need in certain activities. Water is an essential material in life, none of the living things in this world need no water. Most of the human body itself consists of water. The average human body contains 90% of its body weight. The body of an adult, about 55-60%, the body weight consists of water, for children about 65% and for infants about 80% . Clean water is needed in fulfillment of human needs to do all their activities. So it is necessary to know how water is said to be clean in terms of quality and can be used in adequate amounts in human daily activities.
In terms of quality, there are a number of requirements that must be met, among them physical quality consisting of smell, color and taste, chemical kulitas consisting of pH, civility, and so on as well as the biological quality of water man freed from disease-causing microorganisms. In order for human survival to run smoothly, clean water must also be available in adequate quantities in accordance with human activities in certain places and a certain period of time.
Water as an essential material in life appears from the need for water for daily use in the household environment turns out to vary by place, every level of life or every nation and country. The higher the level of one's life the more human need for water. The number of people in the world every day is increasing, resulting in the amount of water needs. Clean Water is water that is used for daily purposes and its quality meets the health requirements of clean water in accordance with the prevailing laws and regulations and can be drunk when cooked.
For humans the need for water is absolute because in fact the human body-forming substance consists mostly of water that amounts to about 73% of the body part. Water in the human body serves as a transporter and solvent of food ingredients that are important to the body. However, water used is not always in accordance with health conditions, because often found water contains seeds or certain substances that can cause diseases that harm human survival. The characteristics of clean water that are worth consuming or drinking, such as;
a. Physics Requirements
1) Water should look clear or not murky;
2) Has no color or clear;
3) Tasteless or tasteless;
4) Odorless or odorless;
5) The temperature range is between 10-25 ºC (cool).
b. Chemical Requirements
1) Does not have toxic chemical content;
2) Does not contain chemical substances that exceed the limit;
3) Enough iodine content;
4) the pH of water is in the range of 6.5 – 9.2.
c. Microbiology Requirements
There are no disease-carrying germs such as typhoid, dysentery, cholera, and disease-causing pathogenic bacteria. As we know if the water quality standards are above the standard or in accordance with those standards then what happens is to determine the amount of investment in the procurement of clean water, both the installation of water purification and the cost of operation and maintenance. Water supply must meet quality and quantity, for example:
1) Safe and hygienic;
2) Good and worth a drink;
3) Available in sufficient quantities;
4) The price is relatively cheap or affordable.
3. Water Purification Process With Simple Water Purification Technique
Human ways to get clean water through the process of making a filtering or water purification tool. There are several ways to clear/filter to get water that humans deserve. It is mechanical and chemical depending on water conditions. We're here to talk about clearing and filtering systems by slowing the flow. This system uses filter materials, such as sabut/ijuk, stones, charcoal active or brick pieces. The water that passes through the filter will be filtered so that it produces clear water.
a. As for the function of the materials:
1) Fiber/ijuk facilitates simple filtering by mechanical means. Ijuk serves to filter out larger impurities;
2) Charcoal serves to filter the removal of odors, colors, polluters in water, as a protector and exchange of resin in water filtration materials;
3) Gravel/Stones serve to filter large materials;
4) This sand is very effective as a filter media to contain clean water.
b. How to Make A Simple Water Purification Tool
Preparing Tools and Materials;
1). Bottle of mineral water;
6). Hose or straw.
How to Make:
1. Cut or cut the bottom of the mineral bottle until loose;
2. Hole the bottle cap with nails and insert a hose or straw;
3. The bottle is reversed, the bottle cap is below. Enter the ingredients in order;
4. After finishing composing and making the tool try to put the murky dirty water into the bottle of mineral water that is ready to use.
C. Data Analysis
1. Create Steps
a. Cut or cut the used bottle in half;
b. Hole one part of the bottom bottle and another on the bottom edge;
c. Connect the bottle with a straw or hose.
3. Stages or procedures
a. Mix water and alum into the first glass;
b. Arrange large pebbles, small pebbles, coarse sand, and fine sand; into the second glass;
c. Arrange coconut fibers, charcoal, and coconut fibers into glasses; third glass and the fourth glass as a shelter.
Water is the main source of living things in the world. None of these living things need water because water is a very important element of life for the survival of humans and other living things. Water is even an important basic element in the life chain of the existence of clean water very little because of the wide variety of human activity that results in dirty or polluted water. All sorts of efforts to make clean water are carried out such as filtering, deposition of used materials such as charcoal sand, gravel, alums, and others.
With the comprehens of this scientific paper expect all readers to understand what has been written in this paper. So a little bit can add to the reader's knowledge. Besides, I also expect advice and criticism from readers so that we can be better oriented.